Wednesday, July 18, 2012


Power Plants

Battelle has provided a well-written report that discusses power plant coal utilization in great detail. It gives
a thermal efficiency of 80-83% for steam generation plants and 37-38% thermal efficiency for power generating plants at base load (about 70%). A base load plant designed for about 400 MW and up will run at steam pressures of 2,400 or 3.600psi and 1,000”F with reheat to 1.000”F and regenerative heating of feedwater by steam extracted from the turbine. A thermal efficiency of 40% can be had from such a plant at full load and 38% at high annual load factor. The 3,600psi case is supercritical and is called a once-through boiler, because it has no steam drum. Plants designed folr about 100-350MW run around 1,800 psi and 1,000”F with reheat to 1,000”F. Below 100 MW a typical condition would be about 1,350psi and 950°F with no reheat. Below 60% load factor, efficiency falls off rapidly. The average efficiency for all steam power plants on an annual basis is about 33%.

Monday, July 16, 2012


Affinity laws

Dynamic type pumps obey the affinity laws:

  1. Capacity varies directly with impeller diameter and speed. 
  2. Head varies directly with the square of impeller diameter and speed.
  3. Horsepower varies directly with the cube of impellerdiameter and speed.


The handiest pump horsepower formula for a process  engineer is: 

HP = GPM(AP)/1715(Eff)


HP = Pump horsepower
GPM = Gallons per minute
AP = Delivered pressure (discharge minus suction), psi
Eff = Pump efficiency, fraction

Friday, July 13, 2012


Standard pipe is made in a discrete number of sizes that are designated by nominal diameters in inches, as “inches IPS (iron pipe size).” Table A5 lists some of these sizes with dimensions in inches. Depending on the size, up to 14 different wall thicknesses are made With the same outside diameter. They are identified by schedule numbers, of which the most common is Schedule 40. Approximately,

Schedule number = 1000 PIS,

P = internal pressure, psig
S = allowable working stress in psi.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Ultrasonic Cleaning

The material presented in this section features models of ultrasonic cleaners that are unique to this manufacturer. Other sources’ equivalent models’ features should be considered for relevant applications.

Theory of Ultrasonic Cleaning

Everything that makes a sound vibrates, and everything that vibrates makes a sound; however, not all sounds are audible. Ultrasound literally means beyond sound—sound beyond the audible spectrum. Considering 18,000 Hz (cycles per second) as an approximate limit of human hearing, ultrasonics refers to sound above
18,000 Hz.
The ultrasonic power supply (generator) converts 50/60 Hz voltage to high frequency 20 or 40 kHz (20,000/40,000 cycles per second) electrical energy. This electrical energy is transmitted to the piezoelectric transducer within the converter, where it is changed to high-frequency mechanical vibration. The vibrations from the converter are amplified by the probe (horn), creating pressure waves in the liquid. This action forms millions of microscopic bubbles (cavities) that expand during the negative pressure excursion and implode violently during the positive excursion. It is this phenomenon, referred to as cavitation, that produces the powerful shearing action at the probe tip, and causes the molecules in the liquid to become intensely agitated.

Monday, July 9, 2012

How Desalination Works

There are many different techniques for desalination. Among the main ones are the multistage flash (MSF) process and reverse osmosis. Countries that do not have anabundance of fresh water are prime candidates for the use of this technology. Quatar’s installations include the Ras Abu Fontas B power and desalination plant, which cost $1 billion to build. Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a 60- million-gal/day desalination plant at Jebel Ali. The plant’s eight MSF units are part of a cogeneration power facility. The fresh water would have been at least as much incentive in the Middle East as the increased total thermal efficiency. The desalination equipment in both cases was supplied by Weir Westgarth (WW).

WW designed the MSF process. The principle of the system is simple: Water and steam in a closed system can be made to boil at temperatures lower than at standard temperature and pressure by reduction of the system pressure. MSF plants contain a series of closed chambers—as many as 20—each held at a lower pressure than the preceding one.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

(Job Vacancy) Chevron

Chevron is a major partner in Indonesia's economy and an active member of the community. Through our wholly owned subsidiary PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia, we are the largest producer of Indonesia's crude oil. We are searching for new oil and gas reserves from central Sumatra to offshore East Kalimantan. We have begun design work on our deepwater natural gas project off East Kalimantan through Chevron Indonesia Company Our geothermal operations in Indonesia help make Chevron the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. Chevron sells lubricants in Indonesia through our subsidiary PT Chevron Oil Products Indonesia.

Mooring Master
Kalimantan Timur, Riau

  • Experience at least 4 years as Master Ocean Going in tanker gas and tanker crude.
  • Holding 'Sertifikat Pandu' and STCW '95.
  • Holding ISPS / PFSO Certificate(s).
  • Member of IMO and hold international pilot license to berth and un-berthing Oil and Gas tanker.
  • Familiar with Production Operation.
  • Familiar with Ship, Rig, Tanker and Vessels System and Marine Facilities equipment operation.
  • Physically fit.
  • Willing to relocate to one of Chevron operations locations (East Kalimantan/Riau).
  • Desiring to work in a multicultural and diverse organization.

(Job Vacancy) Chevron

Chevron is a major partner in Indonesia's economy and an active member of the community. Through our wholly owned subsidiary PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia, we are the largest producer of Indonesia's crude oil. We are searching for new oil and gas reserves from central Sumatra to offshore East Kalimantan. We have begun design work on our deepwater natural gas project off East Kalimantan through Chevron Indonesia Company Our geothermal operations in Indonesia help make Chevron the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. Chevron sells lubricants in Indonesia through our subsidiary PT Chevron Oil Products Indonesia.

Land Officer
Riau - Rumbai

  • Minimum GPA : 2.75
  • Minimum degree : S1 (S2/master degree will be an advantage).
  • Understand of Indonesian laws and regulation on land and forestry.
  • Minimum 3 years in handling land acquisition/land dispute resolution, permitting and other related activities.
  • Has excellent negotiation skills, strong integrity, good personality/ behavior.
  • Willing to relocate to one of Chevron operations locations (East Kalimantan/Riau).
  • Having a good leadership and communication, both in Bahasa or English.
  • Desiring to work in a multicultural and diverse organization.
  • Strong in seeking learning activities.
  • Able to establish effective relationships with people of other culture and backgrounds.


PT. IRAWAN PRIMA UTAMA a well known Contractor, invites qualified and experienced candidates to fulfill the position of:

HSE Engineer
Jawa Barat
  • Male
  • Minimum age 30 years old
  • Candidate must posses at least min D3 or S1 a Bachelor's Degree in Occupational Health and Safety
  • Good Degree from reputable university (min GPA 3,00)
  • Preferably Staffs specializing in HSE Inspector in well known Contractor
  • Responsible and resolute to task
  • At least 1 year(s) of working experience in the related field is required for this position/Fresh Graduate are welcome
  • Willing to be located all over Indonesia
  • Computer literate and good Commad of written & spoke English

If you have the commitment to grow with PT. IRAWAN PRIMA UTAMA, please send your detail CV in English, and must attach health report from doctor with the most recent photograph & indicate your position within 2 weeks to:
Jl. Pahlawan 99 Citeureup – Sentul,
Bogor 16810, Indonesia
Fax (021) 87950735

PT Yamaha Electronics Manufacturing Indonesia

As one of multinational company which has famous brand in the world, we are seeking for talented and high caliber candidate who are looking for more challenges to join as part our growth for the following position :

Production Control ( PC )
Jawa Timur - Pasuruan

  • Male, max 28 years old
  • Single
  • D3/S1 degree majoring Industrial Engineering
  • Min. 1 years experience in PPIC
  • Computer Literate
  • Proficient in English both oral & written
  • Willing to be stationed in Pasuruan

PT. Yamaha Electronics Manufacturing Indonesia
Jl. Rembang Industri II/9-11 PIER Pasuruan Jawa Timur

Email Address :
( email subject : Possition Code_Your name )

(Job Vacancy) PT Prima Energytama

PT. Prima Energytama adalah perusahaan tambang batu bara yang sedang berkembang dan berekspansi besar di wilayah Kalimantan dan Sumatera. Kami mengundang Anda yang berintegritas, dinamis dan bermotivasi tinggi untuk menempati posisi sebagai :

Kalimantan Timur

  • Pria, usia maksimum 30 tahun
  • Lulusan D3 dari segala jurusan 
  • Pengalaman pada posisi yang sama selama 3 tahun atau 1 tahun pada bagian administrasi/mekanik
  • Diutamakan dari perusahaan tambang atau rental alat berat
  • Menguasai Ms. Office & internet
  • Siap ditempatkan di lokasi tambang wilayah Kalimantan

(Job Vacancy) PT Nissan Motor Indonesia

Calling all passionate people in automotive industry!! As an exciting company, NISSAN seek talented people who are not only excited with the roar of cars but also passionate about customer needs, want to improve through continuous learning, and has drive for excellent performance

Engineer Staff
  • Bachelor degree from reputable university, major in Industrial / Electrical / Mechanical Engineering, with GPA min 3.00 out of 4.00.
  • Preferably maximal have1 year experience in manufacturing (fresh graduate are welcome to apply).
  • Single, 22-25 years old.
  • Willing to be placed in Purwakarta.
  • Understand automotive parts and can read technical drawing.
  • Fluent in English is a must, both oral and written.
  • Have high analysis skill, good negotiation & interpersonal skill, communicative, can work under pressure.

Please submit your complete application letter
Before July 31st, 2012to:
(Subject: Engineer Staff)
Only short listed candidates who meet requirement and sent application by email will be notified.

(Job Vacancy) PT Katexindo Citramandiri

PT Katexindo Citramandiri (PMA garment factory) located at KBN Cakung, is a member of TAL Group - world leader in producing innovative clothes that combine style, comfort and function. Our group specializes in the manufacture of quality men’s and women’s garment for the world’s leading brands.

We are looking for highly motivated people to be developed in our dynamic yet challenging environment to fill the post of:

Industrial Engineering
Jakarta Raya - KBN Cakung

Requirements: (please only apply when you really meet the criteria below)
  • Holding S1 Engineering Degree
  • Minimum GPA of 2.75, Male – Female
  • Maximum 24 years old
  • Fresh Graduates
  • Interest in Production Working area
  • Fluent in English is needed (Oral and Written)
  • Will be developed to support plant on concepts, tools, and processes of Production System conversion.
  • Will be developed to do preparation before conversion such as Operator Loading, Layout, Training Plan, improvement of HT – Handling Time
  • Will be developed to perform continuous improvement after conversion with Andon and Kanban concept
  • Willing to work in Cakung Cilincing - Jakarta Utara location
  • Lunch and Shuttle Bus transport provided for particular routes
  • Full Time Permanent Position Offered

(Job Vacancy) PT Nakajima All Indonesia

We are an electronic private company located in East Karawang, need URGENTLY,2 ( two ) Engineering Staff  with qualifications :

Engineering Staff
Jawa Barat

  • Male
  • D3 /S1  Fresh graduated welcome, have experience will be adventage
  • D3 /S1 degree majoring in Electronic and majoring in computer
  • Fluent English
  • For Computer, has knowledge of Linux and PHP

(Job Vacancy) PT Graha Kerindo Utama

We are a fast growing company, have achieved TOP BRAND and also one of business unit of KOMPAS GRAMEDIA that produced TISSUE TESSA, MULTI, and DYNASTY. In order to do a BIG PROJECT, this strategic position is solely intended for those of you who meet the qualifications for this position:

Jawa Barat - Cibitung (Bekasi) or Dawuan (Cikampek)

  • Male with age <29.
  • Bachelor in Industrial from reputable university with minimum GPA 3.00.
  • Minimum 2 years experience in Manufacturing Industry.
  • Understanding the basis of plant management, management of industrial processes; have good planning, monitoring, analysis, and evaluation; and able to calculate estimates.
  • Computer literate (Microsoft Office).
  • Willing to be placed in Cibitung (Bekasi) or Dawuan (Cikampek).

(Job Vacancy) PT Herman Industries


Currently we are looking for highly qualified, self starter, hard working and strong leadership professional qualification to fill up the following position as :

Jakarta Raya
  • Candidate must possess at least a Diploma, Engineering (Electrical/Electronic) or equivalent.
  • At least 3 year(s) of working experience in the related field is required for this position.
  • Preferably Supervisor / Coordinators specializing in Engineering - Electrical or equivalent.
  • Full-Time position(s) available.

Lamaran dan CV lengkap dikirim ke: atau

Jl. KH. Zainul Arifin No. 3B, Jakarta Pusat

Friday, July 6, 2012

Fans, Centrifugal

Besides being used in process plants, centrifugal fans are common in building heating and air-conditioning systems. Vendors for these systems should be consulted for required options

Types of Fans

Three types of centrifugal fans are available: (1) forward curved blade fans, (2) radial blade fans, and (3) backward curved blade fans. The characteristics of the forward curved blade fan make it the most appropriate type of cooling tower service. By virtue of the direction and velocity of the air leaving the fan wheel, the fan can be equipped with a comparatively small size housing, which is desirable from a structural standpoint. Also, because the required velocity is generated at a comparatively low speed, forward curved blade fans tend to operate quieter than other centrifugal types. Note the relatively small rpm and head values. The envelopes on the head versus volume curves each indicate a separate fan model is available. Centrifugal fans are usually of sheet metal construction, with the most popular protective coating being hot-dip galvanization. Damper mechanisms are also available to facilitate capacity control of the cooling tower.


All propeller-type fans operate in accordance with common laws. For a given fan
and cooling tower system, the following is true:
1. The capacity (cfm) varies directly as the speed (rpm) ratio, and directly as the
pitch angle of the blades relative to the plane of rotation.
2. The static pressure (hs) varies as the square of the capacity ratio.
3. The fan horsepower varies as the cube of the capacity ratio.
4. At constant cfm, the fan horsepower and static pressure vary directly with the
air density.
If, for example, the capacity (cfm) of a given fan were decreased by 50 percent
(either by a reduction to half of design rpm, or by a reduction in blade pitch angle
at constant speed), the capacity ratio would be 0.5. Concurrently, the static pressure
would become 25 percent of before, and the fan horsepower would become 12.5
percent of before. These characteristics afford unique opportunities to combine cold
water temperature control with significant energy savings.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Cooling Towers: Design and Operation Considerations

Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants.  They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low grade heat from cooling water.
Closed Loop Cooling Tower System

The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation.  Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower.   The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.



Natural gas and crude distillates such as naphtha from petroleum refigare used as feedstocks to manufacture a wide range of petrochemicals that are in turn used in the manufacture of consumer goods. Basic petrochemicals are manufactured by cracking, reforming, and other processes, and include olefins (such as ethylene, propylene, butylenes, and butadiene) and aromatics (such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes). The capacity of naphtha crackers is generally of the order of 250,000 to 750,000 metric tons per year (tpy) of ethylene production. Some petrochemical plants also have alcohol and oxo-compound manufacturing units on site. The base petrochemicals or products derived from them, along with other raw materials, are converted to a wide range of products.